CODE OF ETHICS AND CODE OF PRACTICE
Here are a few guidelines Monica will follow as an Art Psychotherapist from Creativity From Within
CODE OF ETHICS
Relationship with Clients
I recognise the need for a good working relationship in order for effective therapy to take place.
I am culturally competent in working psychodynamically with any given client/patient, and I will obtain the appropriate supervision/traning to keep my skills up to date.
The cultural therapeutic needs of the client/patient are paramount. I respect and give consideration to the physical, emotional, psychological and cultural backgrounds of client/patients, respecting the diversity of their cultural, ethnic and racial origins as well as their individuality. Each client will be treated with consideration, respecting their individual experiences (as members of ethnic minority communities in Britain) and the contribution of this to their current thoughts, actions and feelings.
I recognise, acknowledge and pay attention to the power and influence that may be engendered in the therapeutic intervention, working to recognise and diffuse this power relationship, where possible, for the benefit of the client.
All professional relationships with a client will exclude abuse or exploitation in any form – be that financial, , emotional, racial or physical. Engaging in sexual activity or inuendoes of any kind with a client is unethical and forbidden.
I recognise that sometimes such issues can occur. I should be alert to any potential manifestations of abuse or exploitation and are expected to proactively explore any such issues.
I will respect the right of patient/clients to a confidential service. There will be situations where there are alternative arrangements (e.g. medical or Court reports) but I must have explicitly discussed the boundaries of confidentiality with the patient/client prior to Art Therapy and the client must have agreed to this. If there is a later request for information this should also be discussed with the patient/client. In either case the patient/client will preferably have signed a consent form for information to be passed on to a named other source.
I will respect the rights of patient/clients to discuss the parameters of their therapy, and provide the therapeutic framework for this to happen.
Discussion of a patient/client is explicitly forbidden outside clinical supervision (of a formal or informal nature). All such discussions must not be able to be overheard by the patient or others uninvolved in the supervision.
All written documents pertaining to patient/clients will be kept in a locked filing cabinet, all identifiable documents must be shredded when no longer being kept.
I should consider the client’s best interests and (usually) informed consent when making appropriate contact with the client’s GP, relevant psychiatric services, or other relevant professionals.
Where a medical aspect of a client’s condition may be involved, I will encourage the client seek medical consultation where appropriate, failing that, I may seek to gain medical advice with the informed written consent of the patient.
Where a patient/client is considered a danger to him/herself or others, informed consent may not be available. In this case a decision to disclose should preferably, if there is time, be discussed with the Clinical Director or supervisor. If they are unavailable then the professional should make the decision and the situation should be reported to the Clinical Director as soon as possible.
I should discuss the parameters of the therapy with their patient/clients. Such contracts with clients should be explicit with regard to holidays and procedures relating to the cancellation of sessions. All issues of termination, transfers etc., should be discussed objectively and as early as possible with mutual agreement sought. Any specific requirements concerning the number of sessions that clients will undertake with Creativity from Within should be stated and mutually agreed in the initial session.
Any changes to the contract (timing, termination date etc) should be discussed with the patient/client and mutual decisions reached. Such discussions (where possible) should allow the client/patient enough time to make any changes necessary.
Monica holds a Post-Graduate Diploma in Art Psychotherapy
Creativity From Within will only accept clients within the remit of their training, experience and supervision. When Creativity From Within encounters a client outside the range of their competence, I will refer the client on to another therapist with the required skills, or obtain special supervision to deal with the issues concerned.
Creativity From Within will need to maintain its competence and ability to practise over time by attending to their personal and professional development.
I am expected and required to preserve the confidentiality of their client. If a third party, such as the law courts or the police request information relating to the breaking of confidentiality, where possible written consent should be obtained from the client in question. In such circumstances the I am advised to seek legal advice before complying with such a request.
After consultation with the relevant supervisor, other non-confidential information may be given if a legal request in writing is made by the third party, giving the reasons and purpose for such information.
In transfers and referrals, mutually agreed between client and the Art Therapist, the client’s permission must be obtained before pertinent information is shared with the new therapist.
For supervision and teaching purposes: In such cases, care must be taken to avoid any information that may lead to the identification of the client.
Where wider publication of a full case history is intended, the client’s written permission must be obtained and patient anonymity preserved.
Where a formal written request is received from other professional bodies (doctors, probation officers, police officers etc.), the issue must first be discussed with the client. Any information can only be forwarded with the written and/or signed consent of the client concerned.
Any circumstance where I have grounds to believe that their client may cause or is causing serious harm to themselves or to others.
If I am asked to appear in court, that I should seek clarification as to the legality of that request from relevant professional bodies and from relevant insurance companies.
Creativity From Within is required to clarify with their clients the nature, purpose and conditions of any research in which the client is to be involved. I should ensure that informed and verifiable consent is given before the start of any research.
I am required to safeguard the welfare and anonymity of clients when any form of publication of clinical material is being considered and to obtain written permission in advance from the client(s).
Creativity From Within is required to have the relevant indemnity insurance cover for their professional work.
Creativity From Within is required to refrain from behaviour that may be detrimental to the profession, to colleagues, trainees or students.
Creativity From Within is to take responsibility and appropriate action with regard to the behaviour of a colleague, which may be detrimental to the profession, to other colleagues, trainees or students.
MONITORING OF FEEDBACK AND COMPLAINTS
Creativity From Within is required to institute its complaints procedure in all cases of a complaint being received.
Creativity From Within is required to report to the Health Professions Council (Registration Board) the names of members who have been suspended or expelled.
Creativity From Within is required to inform its member organisations if any complaint is upheld against it, in another member organisation, or if they are convicted of any criminal offence or if successful civil proceedings have been brought against them in relation to their work as an Art Psychotherapist.
Creativity From Within is required to report annually to the registration board of the Health Professions Council concerning the number and nature of complaints received.
CODE OF PRACTICE
Creativity From Within may be asked to work with families and groups if they have relevant experience and appropriate supervision.
The Code of Practice, as the Code of Ethics, applies to Creativity From Within.
Membership of the Health Professions Council usually affirms competence for practice. Creativity From Within will need to maintain its competence and ability to be permitted to practise by attending to their personal and professional development.
I must not work professionally when under the influence of alcohol or drugs or when incapacitated by infirmity or illness. Should such impairment of skills or judgement occur, it will lead to a failure of duty.
Responsibility and duty to the Art Psychotherapy client and the public should override ones’ duty to colleagues.
I must not work professionally during any period of a suspension from Creativity From Within arising from any criminal conviction which is relevant, or later deemed relevant, to the practice of Art Psychotherapy or upon any successful complaint under the disciplinary process of Creativity From Within
Responsibilities to Colleagues
Clients of Creativity From Within should not be accepted if they are known to be in therapy with another psychotherapist.
A member, volunteer or trainee shall not speak unfairly, professionally or personally, about another colleague to a client or a potential client of that colleague.
Responsibilities to Clients
Creativity From Within must not exclude a client from therapy solely on the basis of the client’s race, religion, orientation, nation of origin or physical disability.
Creativity From Within must be covered by insurance or indemnity arrangements against possible claims for damages for alleged negligence, malpractice or accidental injury.
Once a client has decided to start therapy, it is essential to make a clear agreement about issues that effect the mutual commitment between therapist and client. The agreement needs to include dates and times of meetings, holiday arrangements, required notification of absence or the intention to terminate therapy.
In the case of the necessity for psychiatric and/or medical cover or referral to other therapists or organisations, this necessity will be openly discussed with the client.
Client confidentiality is to be respected at all times. Information acquired by a member or trainee in the course of assessment and therapy must remain confidential within the members’ or trainees’ professional understanding of the best interests of the client. Exceptional circumstances under which confidentiality may be broken are:
Where someone’s life may be seriously under threat;
in the case of on-going sexual abuse towards a child;
in the case of on-going physical and/or psychological abuse towards a child;
if the courts and Police make a strong case for information on a client
Careful Considerations Around Adhering to Confidentiality
At referral/assessment where the permission of the client must be obtained before pertinent information may be passed on to the new therapist;
During supervision and teaching, Creativity From Within needs to take care so that they avoid any information which may lead to the identification of the client;
Any written report which involves disclosure of the client’s identity must be fully discussed with the client, and the information can only be forwarded with the client’s signed consent;
Where the wider publication of a full case study is intended, the client’s permission must be obtained in writing;
Where a medical aspect of a client’s condition may be involved, the therapist can seek medical consultation and/or encourage the client to do so themselves;
In the circumstances where the therapist has grounds to believe that the client may cause, or is causing serious harm to themselves or to others.
All material held on computers regarding clients must be kept secure. Computerised information must conform to the requirements of the Data Protection Act 1986 and any subsequent revisions.
Publicity material will be limited to factual information regarding training qualifications and services offered. Demeaning and/or comparative statements about other therapists or training is not acceptable.
Creativity From Within is responsible for ensuring that arrangements are in place to safeguard the clients’ therapeutic needs during their absences, e.g., holidays, or in the event of illness or death.
A full code of ethics and practice is available for downdoad from the British Association of Art Therapists website www.baat.org
Art therapy is a way of using art for therapeutic purposes. It involves the use of visual and tactile media as a means of self-expression. Art therapists and art psychotherapists aim to enable
clients both to discover an outlet for often complex and confusing emotions that cannot always
be expressed verbally, and to foster within themselves self-awareness and growth. Practitioners
have evolved distinct ways of working according to their specialism. They work in a clinical
context where aspects of health, ill health, difficulties and impairments are a great part of what
the client brings to the art therapy sessions. In this context and as registered health
professionals, art therapists and art psychotherapists are expected to exercise clinical judgement
as a means of practising safely and effectively.
The British Association of Art Therapists (‘the Association’) has issued this Code of Ethics and
the supporting Principles of Professional Practice and Guidelines with the aim of providing
members of the Association (‘Members’) with the fundamental principles, standards and
guidelines for good practice. This is to support them in their work, as well as to inform and
protect members of the public using their services.
Art therapy is a regulated profession and, in the United Kingdom only those persons who are
appropriately qualified and registered by the Health Professions Council (‘HPC’), may legally
describe themselves art therapists or art psychotherapists. Membership of the Association is
only open to registered art therapists and art psychotherapists.
Throughout their professional life Members must:
· maintain their registration by the HPC;
· adhere to this Code of Ethics and the Principles of Professional Practice and Guidelines
· undertake supervision in accordance with supervision guidelines; and
· undertake continuing professional development (‘CPD’) as required by both the
Association and the HPC.
1.1 Only those who are registered by the HPC in the Arts Therapy Part of the Register and
entitled to use the title registered art therapist or registered art psychotherapist are eligible
for full membership of the Association.
1.2 Members must:
(i) abide by this Code of Ethics;
(ii) be informed by the Principles of Professional Practice and Guidelines for Members;
(iii) undertake clinical supervision in accordance with the supervision guidelines; and
(iv) undertake continuing professional development (CPD) as required by the Association
and the HPC.
1.3 Membership of the Association may be terminated in respect of any Member who:
(i) contravenes this Code of Ethics;
(ii) is convicted of a crime which has a bearing on their fitness their practise;
(iii) has their registration suspended or revoked by the HPC or are similarly disciplined by
another health care regulatory body; or
(iv) is expelled from or disciplined by another professional organisation.
2. General principles
2.1 Members should seek to establish the highest ethical standards and should regard the
therapeutic interests of the clients as paramount.
2.2 Members should strive to practice lawfully, safely, effectively, accountably and fairly.
2.3 Members should only treat and advise on cases in which they are competent, as
determined by their education, training and experience. This principle is summarised in
the proposition that a Member has a ‘scope of practice’ at any particular point in their
2.4 Members should be culturally competent. Cultural competence is a set of congruent
behaviours, attitudes and policies that enable Members to work effectively in cross-cultural
2.5 Members should acknowledge and incorporate into their professional work:
(i) the importance of culture, and variations within cultures;
(ii) the assessment of cross-cultural relations;
(iii) cultural differences in visual symbols and imagery;
(iv) vigilance towards the dynamics that result from cultural differences;
(v) the expansion of cultural knowledge and the adaptation of services to meet differing
2.6 Members should establish their clients’ accountable agent and encourage clients, or their
carers, to identify and to seek the advice of a qualified doctor or psychiatrist for their
2.7 Members should assist clients in understanding their options in making their own
decisions, and will respect the choices they make.
3. Professional competence and integrity
3.1 Members must maintain high standards of professional competence and integrity.
3.2 Members must keep informed and up to date with developments in their field, through
educational activities, clinical experience and CPD. The learning schemes that Members
undertake as part of their CPD must have the objective of maintaining and developing
their professional competence.
3.3 Members must:
(i) keep themselves informed about current thinking and clinical developments which are
related to their practice;
(ii) make use of any financial or other support provided by their employer to develop their
professional skills through attending in-service training programmes, lectures,
conferences or workshops. Ideally, they should also keep in contact with fellow
professionals through regional groups of the Association.
3.4 Members must, so far as practicable, inform themselves of any other treatment being
undertaken by their client, and make appropriate clinical decisions according to the
context and the client’s needs.
3.5 Members must exercise care when making public their professional recommendations and
opinions through testimony or other public statements and recognise their potential to
influence and alter the lives of others.
3.6 Members must not distort or misuse their clinical and research findings.
Members must monitor their own professional competence through clinical supervision in
accordance with the Association’s supervision guidelines and clinical supervisors should
apply to be accredited by the Association.
5. Accepting clients
Members should, where appropriate, seek a written referral for a client from the
appropriate agent. Clients who self-refer should be asked to provide a written request for
art therapy after the initial contact. Members must retain the right not to accept certain
clients following their assessment.
6.1 Members must develop and use assessment methods which help them understand and
serve the needs of their clients. Such assessment methods should only be used within
the context of a defined professional relationship.
6.2 Members should use only those assessment methods in which they have competence
through appropriate training and supervised experience.
7. Informed consent
7.1 Members should obtain informed consent for treatment which must be recorded in their
clinical notes. If a client has difficulty understanding the language or procedures used,
Members should arrange for appropriate support to be provide to the client, such as the
assistance of a qualified interpreter or signer.
7.2 Members must consider any factors which may influence the outcome of therapeutic
practice, including assessment and the reporting of its results, such as culture, race,
gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, education, and disability.
8. Accountability and consistency of care.
8.1 Members should be clear about their accountability in relation to the treatment of clients
and must take reasonable steps to be aware of the current law, and changes to the law,
which may affect their practice.
8.2 Members must provide as much consistency of care as possible for their clients, be
assertive in their efforts to maintain contact with them during the course of therapy and
make every effort to prepare the client for the ending of the therapy. Where circumstances
mean that therapy has to end prematurely, Members must make reasonable efforts to help
the client find alternative sources of help, within the limitations of the context of the clinical
9. Clinical Judgement
9.1 Members must take appropriate steps to ensure that their judgement is not impaired, that
they do not exploit clients and that that they act in the client’s best interest. Members
should not practise while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or if their physical or
mental state might affect their ability to practise.
9.2 Members must seek appropriate professional help for any personal problems or conflicts
that may impair or affect their work performance or clinical judgement.
10.1 Members must respect and protect confidential information obtained from clients in
conversation or through artistic expression.
10.2 Information, conversations, transactions and art expressions between a Member and
client must remain confidential within the treatment team. However, disclosure may be
authorised by the client, required by law or made by the Member in appropriate
circumstances, for example, where the safety of the client, the therapist, those caring for
the client, or the public would be threatened by non-disclosure. In such cases disclosure
must be made in the manner which best protects the client’s interests.
10.3 The circumstances in which Members must seek to protect a client’s confidentiality
(i) within the framework of the multidisciplinary team;
(ii) within the employers terms and conditions;
(iii) within the bounds of Multi-agency good practice for child protection and the care of
(iv) within private practice;
(v) within the client-therapist relationship.
11. Clients who are minors
11.1 Members must, so far as possible, seek to preserve the confidentiality of minor clients and
refrain from disclosing information to the parent, guardian or carer of a minor client which
might adversely affect the treatment of the minor client, or place them at further risk.
11.2 Members must take appropriate action if they believe that a young person is in danger,
wherever possible adopting the established multi-agency approach to child protection.
12. Dual Relationships
12.1 Members should always maintain the therapist-client relationship on a professional basis.
A Member should not engage in a dual relationship with clients. A dual relationship occurs
when a Member and client engage in a separate and/or distinct relationship from that of
therapy. Some examples of dual relationship are:
(i) engaging in a close personal relationship with a client;
(ii) engaging in sexual intimacy with a client;
(iii) borrowing money from a client;
(iv) employing a client;
(v) engaging in a business venture with a client.
12.2 Members must ensure that any relationship they have with the client after therapy
terminates is not exploitative.
12.3 Members who are supervisors, training instructors or personal tutors of a student or a
supervisee, should not engage in a dual relationship with that student or supervisee, either
concurrent with, or for at least two years following termination of, the professional
12.4 At the start of a therapeutic relationship, a Member must agree a clear contract with the
client or with the client’s parent, legal guardian, or carer, as appropriate. The contract
should state the expected start date of therapy, the approximate length of therapy, the
agreed frequency of the sessions, and the boundaries of the therapeutic relationship (e.g.
any limits to confidentiality).
13. Practice Environment
13.1 Members must treat clients in an environment which protects privacy and confidentiality
and provides a safe and functional place in which to offer art therapy services, including:
(i) proper heating and ventilation;
(ii) adequate lighting;
(iii) access to a water supply;
(iv) furniture which conforms to relevant health and safety standards;
(v) knowledge of hazards or toxicity of art materials and the effort needed to safeguard
the health of clients;
(vi) storage space for clients’ artwork.
14.1 Members must record the client’s attendance for therapy. Material produced during the art
therapy session should be named, dated, and safely stored throughout the therapeutic
relationship. In general, the client’s art expressions should be kept within the therapeutic
relationship and the disposal of such artwork should be negotiate with the client.
Ultimately the ownership of the artwork remains with the client, as does the manner of its
disposal. If storage space is at a premium, photographic, digitally or video recorded
images may be used an alternative record of the client’s art expression.
14.2 Members must ensure that they follow the policy guidelines laid down by their employer
with regard to the retention of written or computer generated client treatment records.
15. Reproduction and Exhibition of Clients’ Artwork
15.1 Members should use their own judgement as to the need to obtain permission before
publishing a client’s artwork. In general a distinction can be made between publication or
exhibition to a public audience and to a limited audience or forum comprised of fellow
15.2 Members who wish to use verbal dialogue, pictorial or written products from art therapy
sessions for the purposes of research, education, publication or exhibition should:
(i) wherever possible, seek the written consent of the client or the client’s legal guardian
or carer; and
(ii) clearly inform the client, legal guardian or carer about how the material will be used.
15.3 Members must, wherever possible, obtain written consent from the client, legal guardian
or carer before a client or client’s art work is photographed, recorded digitally, video taped,
audio recorded, or otherwise duplicated for the purpose of public display and exhibition.
15.4 Members who wish to use verbal dialogue, pictorial or written excerpts from art therapy
sessions may do so without the specific permission of the client, providing:
(i) the excerpts are only used for supervision, training, education, or for the purpose of
disseminating evidence from art therapy practice;
(ii) the excerpts are used with limited audiences of health professionals who adhere to
rules of confidentiality comparable to those which apply to Members; and
(iii) an indication is given in the treatment agreement or contract that excerpts from
sessions may be used in these ways.
15.5 Members should never seek to profit financially from the sale of art expressions produced
in the therapeutic relationship.
16. Responsibilities to students and supervisees
16.1 Members who act as teachers, supervisors and researchers must present accurate
information and maintain high standards of scholarship in their continuing education.
16.2 Members in a supervisory relationship with students or other Members must not also
engage in a formal therapeutic relationship with them.
16.3 Members who act as supervisors are responsible for maintaining the quality of their
supervision skills and must obtain consultation or supervision for their work as supervisors
17. Research governance
17.1 As stipulated by the employing institution, e.g. University and/or NHS Trust- is an aspect,
a part of Clinical Governance and as such, the same ethical principles, protocols and
processes will apply to all research art therapists.
17.2 Research art therapists must respect the dignity and protect the welfare of participants in
17.3 Research art therapists must abide by the laws, regulations, ethics and professional
standards governing the conduct of research and publication.
17.4 Information obtained by a student/clinician about a research participant during the course
of an investigation must be confidential and any identifying information will be made
anonymous. (See Client Consent forms for Student Researchers)
18. Responsibility to the Profession
18.1 Members must respect the rights and responsibilities of professional colleagues.
18.2 Members should seek to assist and be involved in developing or changing laws and
regulations relating to the field of art therapy where to do so is in the public interest.
19. Financial Arrangements
19.1 Facts should be presented truthfully to clients, third party payers, and supervisees
regarding services rendered and the charges.
19.2 Members should ensure that they are paid for their contribution to training programmes for
colleagues or students and for supervising trainees on clinical placement.
19.3 Members in private practice must make financial arrangements with clients, their agents,
and supervisees that are clear, easily understood and conform to accepted professional
19.4 Members must not offer or accept payment for referrals.
19.5 Members in private practice must disclose their fees at the commencement of service and
give reasonable notice of any changes in fees.
20.1 Members must engage in appropriate informational activities which enable the public to
make informed choices in relation to professional services.
20.2 Members must accurately represent their professional competence, education, training
20.3 Members must ensure that all advertisements and publications, whether in directories,
business cards, newspapers or conveyed on radio or television or by electronic media are
formulated accurately to convey their services to the public so that clients can make an
informed decision about therapy.
20.4 Members must not use any description which is likely to mislead the public about their
identity or status and must not hold themselves out as being partners or associates of an
organisation if they are not.
20.5 Members must not use any professional identification (such as a business card, office
sign, letterhead, internet website or telephone or directory listing) if it includes a statement
or claim that is false, fraudulent, misleading or deceptive. A statement is false, fraudulent,
misleading or deceptive if it: –
(i) fails to state any material fact necessary to keep the statement from being misleading;
(ii) is intended to, or is likely to, create an unjustified expectation; or
(iii) contains a material misrepresentation of fact.
20.6 Members must correct, whenever possible, false, misleading or inaccurate information and
representations made by others concerning the Member’s qualifications and services.
20.7 Members must ensure that the qualifications of persons in their employment are
represented in a manner that is not false, misleading, or deceptive.
20.8 Members must only represent themselves as specialising within a specific area of art
therapy if they have undertaken further education, training, or experience which would
enable them to practice in that speciality area.
20.9 Members who practice privately may advertise their services. However, advertising
should be limited to a statement of name, address, qualifications and type of therapy
offered and such statements should be descriptive and not evaluative.
20.10 Members must adhere to professional rather than commercial standards in advertising
their services. They must notify related professions and referring agencies of their
practice and should promote and facilitate public awareness and understanding of the
profession with dignity and discretion.
21. Private practice
21.1 Members who wish to work in private practice must:
(i) have completed three years full time post-qualifying clinical work or 3,000 hours of
face to face clinical work before doing so.
(ii) submit an application for private practice (PP) status to the Association’s Membership
21.2 Members in private practice must confine their practice within the limits of their training.
Members must neither claim nor imply professional qualifications beyond those they hold
and are responsible for avoiding and correcting any misrepresentation of those
21.3 Members in private practice should ensure that they obtain the client’s permission to
contact the client’s General Practitioner, who is responsible for the clients medical welfare,
and partner, carer or next of kin should it be necessary to do so.
21.4 Members in private practice should ensure they have made living will arrangements to
inform clients, in the case of the therapists’ incapacity or death.
21.5 Members in private practice who intend to hold information about clients on their home
computer must register with the relevant Data Protection Authority.
21.6 Members in private practice must have adequate professional indemnity insurance.
22. Referral and acceptance in private practice
22.1 Members in private practice must, on accepting a client, explain to the client their:
(ii) method of payment;
(iii) session times
(iv) notification of holidays
(v) notice of cancellation
(vii) information relating to the limits of confidentiality; and
(viii) duty as a therapist to report infringements against minors or violent risk to
23. Treatment and planning in private practice
23.1 Members who work in private practice must make art therapy plans that:
(i) seek to attain and maintain the client’s optimum level of functioning and quality of life;
(ii) delineates the type, frequency, and duration of art therapy;
(iii) sets goals that, wherever possible, are formulated with the client’s understanding and
permission and reflect the client’s current needs and strengths; and
(iv) allows for review, modification and revision.
24. Termination of services
24.1 Members, on terminating a therapeutic relationship, must write a discharge/transfer
summary that includes a record of the client’s response to treatment and any
recommendations for future treatment.
24.2 Members should, wherever possible, terminate art therapy services in agreement with the
client and in a planned manner and must do so when therapy is no longer helpful or
appropriate. When it is not possible to discuss termination of therapy with the client, others
close to the client, such as a parent, carer, guardian or case manager should ideally be
Members will increasingly face challenges in the workplace as conditions change but, so
far as possible, should specify their own caseload, in accordance with their preferred
method of working and with the best interests of their clients being the paramount
consideration. Members should seek to negotiate adequate time for preparation, record
keeping, administration, clinical and managerial supervision, meetings and case